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          热轧与冷轧的区别

          日期:2021-11-20 15:16
          浏览次数:0
          摘要:<p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">热轧和冷轧都是钢板或型材成型的工序,它们对钢材的组织和性能有很大的影响。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">钢的轧制主要以热轧为主,冷轧只用于生产小号型钢和薄板。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">热轧</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">从定义上来说,钢锭或钢坯在常温下很难变形,不易加工,一般加热到1100~1250℃进行轧制,这种轧制工艺叫热轧。</span><br data-filtered="filtered" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;" /> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">热轧的终止温度一般为800~900℃,之后一般在空气中冷却,因而热轧状态相当于正火处理。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">大部分钢材都用热轧方法轧制。热轧状态交货的钢材,由于高温的缘故,表面生成一层氧化铁皮,因而具有一定的耐蚀性,可露天存放。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">但这层氧化铁皮也使热轧钢材表面粗糙,尺寸波动较大,所以要求表面光洁、尺寸**、力学性能好的钢材,要用热轧半成品或成品为原料再冷轧生产。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷轧</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷轧,是指在常温下,用轧辊的压力挤压钢材,改变钢材形状的轧制方法。</span><br data-filtered="filtered" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;" /> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">尽管加工过程也会使钢板升温,但仍然称为冷轧。具体一点说,冷轧用热轧钢卷为原料,经酸洗去除氧化皮后进行压力加工,其成品为轧硬卷。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷轧板表面有一定的光洁度,手摸起来比较光滑,主要是酸洗之功。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷轧对钢材形状的改变属于连续冷变形,此过程引起的冷作硬化使轧硬卷的强度、硬度上升、韧塑指标下降。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">对终端使用来说,冷轧使冲压性能恶化,产品适用于简单变形的零件。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">总结:</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷轧与热轧的分别主要是轧制过程的温度。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">“冷”为常温,“热”为高温。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">从金属学的观点看,冷轧与热轧的界限应以再结晶温度来区分。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">即低于再结晶温度的轧制为冷轧,高于再结晶温度的轧制为热轧。钢的再结晶温度为450~600℃。</span> </p>

          热轧和冷轧都是钢板或型材成型的工序,它们对钢材的组织和性能有很大的影响。

          钢的轧制主要以热轧为主,冷轧只用于生产小号型钢和薄板。

          热轧

          从定义上来说,钢锭或钢坯在常温下很难变形,不易加工,一般加热到1100~1250℃进行轧制,这种轧制工艺叫热轧。

          热轧的终止温度一般为800~900℃,之后一般在空气中冷却,因而热轧状态相当于正火处理。

          大部分钢材都用热轧方法轧制。热轧状态交货的钢材,由于高温的缘故,表面生成一层氧化铁皮,因而具有一定的耐蚀性,可露天存放。

          但这层氧化铁皮也使热轧钢材表面粗糙,尺寸波动较大,所以要求表面光洁、尺寸**、力学性能好的钢材,要用热轧半成品或成品为原料再冷轧生产。

          冷轧

          冷轧,是指在常温下,用轧辊的压力挤压钢材,改变钢材形状的轧制方法。

          尽管加工过程也会使钢板升温,但仍然称为冷轧。具体一点说,冷轧用热轧钢卷为原料,经酸洗去除氧化皮后进行压力加工,其成品为轧硬卷。

          冷轧板表面有一定的光洁度,手摸起来比较光滑,主要是酸洗之功。

          冷轧对钢材形状的改变属于连续冷变形,此过程引起的冷作硬化使轧硬卷的强度、硬度上升、韧塑指标下降。

          对终端使用来说,冷轧使冲压性能恶化,产品适用于简单变形的零件。

          总结:

          冷轧与热轧的分别主要是轧制过程的温度。

          “冷”为常温,“热”为高温。

          从金属学的观点看,冷轧与热轧的界限应以再结晶温度来区分。

          即低于再结晶温度的轧制为冷轧,高于再结晶温度的轧制为热轧。钢的再结晶温度为450~600℃。